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One of the new features coming to iOS 12 is USB Restricted Mode, designed specifically to lock out attackers with physical access to a phone or tablet. It will be enabled by default, requiring the user's passcode when anything is connected to the device's charging and data port, starting one hour after it was last locked. For convenience sake the phone or tablet will still charge; any other accessory will require a passcode to work.

Not everyone is thrilled with this new feature. From The New York Times:

Such a change would hinder law enforcement officials, who have typically been opening locked iPhones by connecting another device running special software to the port, often days or even months after the smartphone was last unlocked. News of Apple’s planned software update has begun spreading through security blogs and law enforcement circles—and many in investigative agencies are infuriated.
Police say they need access to phones to catch criminals; Apple argues that vulnerabilities can be exploited by good and bad actors alike.

Currently law enforcement has two paths to access an Apple device: they can ship it off to Israeli forensics firm Cellebrite, or purchase a $15-30,000 box from a U.S. startup called Grayshift and access the device in-house. One police force boasts that they've been able to crack 96 phones with a Grayshift box.

I myself am not entirely convinced that USB Restricted Mode is going to be a success. It might just prompt an attacker (police or otherwise) to change their target, either to a user's iCloud account or even data directly from their carrier. But even if not 100% foolproof, protecting a user's privacy is never a bad idea.

Source: New York Times via iPhone in Canada